The effect of Homosexual behaviours on the fitness of an Animal

Homosexual behavior has been seen as violating the critical law of nature, of procreation and Gods purpose of creation. Biblically, it is condemned, as well as in the many contemporary societies. The idea that animal’s main purpose is to reproduce is a fix on pre -scientist worldviews. From the time in memorial, this idea has been embraced. Darwinian Theory postulates that individual main aim is to maximize reproduction; that is; organism strives in, maximizing the number of viable siblings by passing their own genes to the offspring’s to the future generations. Therefore, sexual selection which is seen as differential reproduction, which occurs simply because male varies in their capability to obtain female reproduction partners, is a key theoretical experiment for interpreting sexual activities. Darwin further established two fundamental mechanisms that affect mate acquisition and mate competition that happen intra-sexually between males to females, and may involve threats and physical fights over and above courtship by the ritual display that is intended to attract discriminating females. An additional acquisition of mate mechanism is sexual coercion. This is appropriate for male if they are unable to attract, or compete for female reproductive mates (Greenspan, 2000).

Writing the Right Things with the best paper writers!

Homosexuality in animals can be seen as a same-sex activity that is said not to be sexual in nature. Same-sex copulatory or courtship behavior occurs over a short time, for instance, same-sex mounting between rum and cockroaches, or it can be for long-term bonds between same-sex partners, which might engage combination of copulating, affection behaviors, parenting and courting. Mutations in the Drosophila gene called fruitless have been known for nearly half a century to cause males to court other males. Fruitless codes for transcription factors that give way to male-specific Courtship activities and genetic changes affecting the performance of these transcription factors induces varying degrees and types of male with male and other male courtship (Greenspan, 2000).

Svetec (2005) argued that social factors and Neurochemical also can be able to relate with the underlying hereditary blueprint of a Drosophila brain and arouse same-sex activities (Svetec, 2005). For instance, gender blind gene controls the level of extracellular glutamate chemical that controls the pheromone processing of information in nerve cells of brains of a male fly. Grosjean (2008) adds that a genetic change gender-blind may distract males chemosensory ability, causing an overreacting and misinterpretation to a chemical signal that differentiate the sexes causing, courting of both females and males. Exogenous substances might also induce same-sex activities, for instance, ethanol (Grosjean, 2008).

In a human being, the word homosexuality is seen as sexual behaviors between individuals or a long-term relationship between individual of the same sex that may include, lesbian or gay social identity. Scientific research or writing, prefers to reserve this anthropomorphic word for a human being, but they do not like to use it in describing behaviours in animals because it is very deeply rooted when used in human (Jeffrey, 2002).

Scientific research associated this behaviours as resulting from sexual orientation, which is used to describe the enduring and stable internal preference for opposite sex versus same sexual partnership or interactions experience by humans. Outwardly, one may be identified as heterosexual, but privately he or she might have homosexual preference.

Homosexuality is highly determined by Sexual preference on which it is viewed as the sex that individuals are likely to practice as sexual behavior, in case they are given choices. It arises when individuals forego an opportunity to practice sexual activity with the members of the opposite sex, but practices in sexual action with individuals of similar sex, and the vice versa. Sexual preference can be said to be different with sexual orientation. A person’s preference changes rapidly, it represents the expression of behavioral choice relatively to a steady inner predisposition towards the other sex or one sex. From an evolutionary perspective, Sommer and Vasey (2006) viewed same-sex activities as a puzzle that required a unique explanation, rather than like adoption or the suicide of distinct infants (Sommer & Vasey, 2006)

The idea that having sex between people of the same sex is based on creating a social bond between them that, having sexual behaviour creates a bond between two animal humans, this has been highly researched and proven. Basing on the research done, it is proven that male tends to engage or practice same sex activities in order to cement the bond between a male and a male partner. This same sex social bonding is potentially important in social hierarchy purposes and survival warfare, which in human evolutionary time remained important for a male human being. This creates a skewed distribution of homosexual men more than women (Pinker, 2011). Homosexual behaviuors decreases the fitness of organisms that engages in the activity and, thereby, subjecting them to counter selection. It frequently represents a pathology that may result to the consequences of unnatural confinement. This behavior in an evolutionary sense is commonly seen as the maladaptation, as long as, it is detrimental in the reproduction or survival and will, thereby, be subjected to counter selection.

The Center for Disease Control (CDC), a Department of Public Health in Massachusetts in centre for disease control, has conducted several researches on health risk that come with the practice of homosexuality. In as much as cancer is a concern, anal cancer can be said to higher in the homosexual male mates than it is spread from heterosexual partners. HPV, a virus responsible for anal and ovarian cancer is said to be spread higher to homosexual partners, simply because it is easier spreading this virus from a male to another male partner rather than the other way. Therefore, this reason gives a major reason why the rate of spread anal cancer is more amongst homosexuals.

The effects AIDS pandemic in the gay population is an extremely serious concern. However, there is increased rate of AIDS pandemic in many regions, in Africa, as a result of, having unprotected sex amongst the infected people, especially the gay community. Other related illness resulting from gay marriage are: papilloma virus, Isospora belli, Microsporidia, Anal cancer, Cryptosporidium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Giardia lamblia, Herpes simplex virus, Human, Gonorrhea, Viral hepatitis types C & B, Syphilis and other related diseases or infections.

It has become quite obvious that the homosexual community and, especially the male gay, tend to be more depressed than the heterosexual community, and this is as a result of failure to accept the reality of their conditions despite others having legal protection. For instance, in the same part of the United States of America (USA), it is legal yet many people do not confess publicly that they are homosexual. This is because society does not treat homosexuality and heterosexuality equally. They tend to discriminate the homosexual by treating them as sinners and an outcast in the society, and thus, creating a stigma amongst gays and lesbian communities.

Studies have shown that those who practice homosexual tend to experience a condition known as sexual identification confusion, particularly offspring brought up in the homosexual families. The research argues that households of homosexual do not recruit their children to the lifestyle of homosexuality, but those children brought in such families are likely to practice or experiment homosexual behavior. It is evidently that the homosexual family tends to practice incest more than straight families. A study conducted in adolescent established that 29 percent of adolescent from homosexual family tended to be subject to sexual violence or molestation from their parents and, therefore, living with a homosexual family increases the rate of incest in families (Greenspan, 1986)

A decreased life span is another contributory factor to the male homosexual household instability by reducing significantly homosexual life expectancy. Canadian global journal of Epidemiology researching on homosexual mortality rate, concluded that in many Canadian centers. In the year 1971, life expectancy of the gay community was between eight to twenty years below that of heterosexual families (Greenspan, 1986).

Substance and drug abuse amongst lesbian is another effect of homosexuality. A research published by nursing research established that lesbians were at higher risk of abusing drugs than the straight people, and suffers other compulsive behaviours. Another similar study simultaneously published by Archives of general psychiatry, followed later carried on 1007 persons from birth, this group classified as lesbians, bisexuals or gay had significantly higher chances of mental disorders. Additionally, a national research survey amongst lesbian in a journal of clinical psychology and consulting established the following, 75 percent of people out of 2000 respondents had sought psychological counseling or treatment in one stage of their life, or had undergone treatment of sadness or long-term depression. Therefore, rampant cases of mental illness are high among homosexual (Greenspan, 1986).

Another study of homosexual violence conducted by the journal of interpersonal violence that was examining on violence and conflict among lesbian relationships founded that, out of 100 lesbian families, 90 were experiencing verbal aggression act resulting from intimate partners with at least 31 percent of them reporting physical abuses from their intimate partners (Green, 1986). Another survey carried on 1099 lesbians by journal of social services research established that slightly higher rate of emotional, verbal, physical and psychological abuse was reported by the lesbian couples (Lie & Gentlewarrier, 1991). Most homosexual partners in a relationship commonly referred to as monogamous necessarily do not lead to a healthy relationship. The rate of promiscuity is high among the homosexual couples. Mattison & Mcwhirter (1984) from their study asserted that 156 homosexual males in a relationship that lasted as from one up to thirty-seven years had only seven partners who had total exclusive sex relationship, and all the men were together in a period of less than five years. Thereby showing majority of those couples were having sex outside their relationships and behind the backs of their couples (McWhirter & Mattison, 1984)

In a more societal setting, culture form the basis of misjudging homosexual families, as a result, children lack real father and mother from the homosexual families. Therefore, homosexual families do not at all act as a substitute for a family, because both father and mother play a distinct role in upbringing their children in a straight family. Lack of one of them makes children miss something in their upbringing. Another fitness problem of homosexuality is commonly known as an Oral – anal contact. Oral- anal contact result in infection of intestinal parasites that are commonly found among the gay community (Richard et al., 1986). This result in a syndrome referred to as a gay bowel syndrome, which may lead to diseases such as scabies, Giardia lamblia, Hepatitis A Entamoeba histolytica, Campylobacter, Salmonellosis and other related diseases. Other gay practice is coprophilia, which refers to sexual contact with extremely contagious fecal wastes; this action exposes the person engaging in the act to the risk of oral-anal contact and numerous of other risks associated with anal-genital contact. Most of these infections result from having contact with body wastes in the anus.

Fisting is generally a term used to refer to the penetrating or the inserting of a forearm or hand inside the rectum, which is extra destructive than the anal intercourse. This can result in more pain and tears resulting to the ineffectiveness of the anal sphincter. In the end, it may result to inflammation, infections, and thus, worsen susceptibility to upcoming STDs through the wounds that may result from the force used in the insertion.

Sadism is an act of sexualization of cruelty and pain that is associated with homosexuality amongst gay couples. The remedial consequences of this sadism might range from fatal to mild that depends upon the character of the injuries inflicted. 37 percent of homosexuals are said to have practiced one form of sadism or the other. This result of sadistic people and may go ahead and cause damage and destruction to person’s organs.

Conclusion

Religion and science tend to have a different view of homosexuality, science have a view that the church ought to change her teaching on homosexuality. Ironically, recently conducted research that many prepositions of the anti-homosexuality campaign fail to understand, is whether it is natured or nurtured, and of this ignorance, they have based their blame on science for failing to state clearly and distinguish whether it is nurtured or neutered. On the other hand, science directs its critics on religion for failing to instill good morals on people and society as a whole and, thereby, causing people to deviate from the norms. Science is often used to argue that the Church needs to change her teaching on homosexuality. Ironically, recent research has now suggested that many of the presuppositions acknowledged as dogma by the gay activists in the community, ought to be themselves revised. Up for era in the world, no evidence which indicates that homosexuality is genetically or environmentally determined. Therefore, it is quite still difficult to establish whether a homosexual person was in truly born that way or otherwise, and thus asking ourselves whether a gay or a lesbian can change and; therefore revisiting the subject of sexual ex-gays and conversion.

Reparative therapy can be extra successful than earlier acknowledged, particularly when it is joined with spiritual faith. Lastly, the argument that homosexuality is as psychologically healthy as heterosexuals might simply not be true. Through other sources of psychopathology, it is quite not yet obvious that homosexual actions are related with higher rates of anxiety disorder, depression, substance abuse and suicide, as well as conduct disorder.

Order custom essay writing
Pricing starting at $7.95/page
Non plagiarised and anonymous

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.